Analysis of packaging function requirements of hot

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The emergence of modern logistics is the inevitable result of the development of various industries and economies. The state of logistics affects the economic operation of production-oriented enterprises and service-oriented enterprises. Modern logistics industry regards the whole society as a logistics operation system. It uses information systems to integrate the management of customers, dealers, transporters, manufacturers, logistics companies and suppliers, so that the flow of goods has the best purpose and economy, eliminates the waste of the whole value, and benefits every participant, so as to improve the resource utilization level of the whole society and improve the competitiveness of the whole society, Offset the institutional defects of blind competition and lagging regulation under the condition of market economy

1 relationship between modern logistics and packaging

1 Packaging is the end of production and the starting point of logistics

whether the use value of goods can be realized in the logistics process is closely related to the function of packaging. As the last process of production, packaging marks the completion of production, so it must meet the requirements of production. As the starting point of logistics, packaging should have the ability of logistics after the completion of product packaging, and play a protective role in the whole logistics process. If packaging starts from the end of production, it is difficult to meet the requirements of circulation. The relationship between packaging and logistics is closer than that between packaging and production. The significance of being the starting point of logistics is more important than that of being the end of production. Packaging runs through the whole logistics process. Without perfect packaging, there will be no modern logistics. At the same time, the development of modern logistics puts forward higher requirements for packaging, which promotes the further development of packaging

according to the viewpoint of commodity survivology, products can realize their functions and reflect their social and economic benefits only when they withstand the test of the whole circulation process and arrive at their destination safely. Packaging is the starting point of logistics. Obviously, for any kind of packaging, choosing appropriate packaging materials, designing reasonable packaging structure and adopting correct packaging technology are important prerequisites to realize logistics optimization. In the process of modern circulation, packaging often takes commodities produced and consumed in large quantities as its internal contents, and takes large-scale, fast, labor-saving, low-cost and environmental protection as its competitive advantages. It is constantly developing in the direction of standardization of packaging size, mechanization of packaging operations, low-cost packaging, large-scale packaging units, resource conservation of packaging materials, and ecological packaging system

1. 2 logistics packaging should be rationalized

packaging rationalization includes two aspects: first, the overall rationalization of logistics packaging can be measured by the unification of overall logistics benefits and micro packaging benefits on June 30, 2015; The second is the reasonable combination and application of packaging materials, packaging technology and packaging methods. We should take production packaging as the end of production and commercial packaging as the starting point of logistics. Storage and transportation packaging is the re packaging based on production packaging or commercial packaging. In order to meet the needs of circulation, in the process of logistics packaging design and manufacturing, we must take some technical means to realize the function of logistics packaging based on the characteristics of logistics environmental conditions. In logistics activities, transportation, warehousing, loading and unloading are indispensable links for PCU in logistics network to be more stable under medical conditions. Different logistics technologies and management methods are applied in each link, and different requirements are put forward for the packaging of goods. Transportation can realize spatial location differences, warehousing can change time differences, and loading and unloading can change the storage status of products. By analyzing the three logistics links, it can be concluded that modern logistics puts forward new requirements for packaging

2 requirements for packaging in the transportation link

when designing, the packaging size should be compatible with the means of transportation, and at the same time, the safety of transportation packages should be considered

2. 1. Packaging materials, specifications and methods of materials

in order to improve logistics efficiency, when transported by trucks, railway trucks, containers, etc., the size of packaged goods should not be wasted in shipping; When using pallets for loading and unloading, goods should have better stacking efficiency on pallets. Only when the external dimension of the package forms an approximate multiple of the internal dimension of the carrier vehicle or pallet, the volume of the vehicle can be fully utilized

2. 2. The package size should be compatible with the means of transportation

the state has formulated relevant standards, specifying the maximum overall dimensions of various cargo spaces and transportation packages

1) during highway and railway transportation, according to different truck models, the length, width and height of the transportation package should be less than the maximum length, width and height of the car of this model respectively. 2) During the air transportation, the assembly of equipment can be considered, but the overall size of the packaging should meet the internal warehouse size suitable for conventional models

2. 3 packaging strength design

only effective protection can make the goods complete the circulation process without loss and realize the transfer of ownership. In the process of transportation, packages inevitably have to withstand various vibrations and shocks, as well as many mechanical or human operations such as handling, loading and unloading. When designing the package, we should consider all kinds of transportation environment and choose the packaging structure and cushioning materials with satisfactory characteristics, so that the package can adapt to various operations in the transportation process without damage

when packed in cartons, the quality of the cartons should be tough and able to bear the weight of the goods carried. The stacking height of the goods after packing should consider not only the stacking height in the transportation equipment, but also the stacking height in the storage process, whichever is higher. When designing the size of the carton, the carton should be filled without gaps, so as to enhance the compressive strength of the carton. At the same time, it is also necessary to consider the deterioration and erosion of packaging structure and materials caused by various harsh environmental conditions during transportation, such as climate, biology, machinery, etc., so as to avoid the reduction of packaging structure strength. When packing in wooden cases, materials shall be selected according to the nature, value, volume and weight of the goods. For goods with high value and easy to be scattered and lost, sealed wooden cases should be used, and bakelite board cases and lattice cases can be used for others. For heavy and long goods, the thickness of box stop and box plate should be increased

2. 4. The surface of transportation package requires that necessary marks should be printed on the surface of the box to facilitate tallying, identification and attract due attention. When the goods and orders are separated for some reason, they can be identified according to the packaging marks; For some packages with protective requirements (moisture-proof, fragile, flammable, etc.), they can be operated reasonably according to the corresponding signs

the transport packaging of general goods shall comply with the provisions of gb9174 technical conditions for transport packaging of general goods. The transportation package marks of goods shall comply with the provisions of gbl91 pictorial marks for packaging, storage and transportation, gb6388 pictorial marks for receipt and delivery of transportation packages and gb5892 pictorial marks for optical materials sensitive to radiant energy

2. 5 other requirements

while protecting the goods themselves, the packaging should also protect the means of transportation or other goods on the same means of transportation and the natural environment, such as the carriage and other items are polluted due to improper packaging of goods such as paint, and the feces of fresh animals are polluted by improper packaging of fresh animals, etc

3 requirements for packaging in warehousing link

3 1 adaptability to the environment

the environmental factors affected by the packaged goods in the circulation process include physical environment, meteorological environment and biological environment. In the storage process, the packaging protection function is largely affected by the storage environment. For example, the air temperature and humidity in the warehouse have a great impact on the strength performance of corrugated boxes. As the relative humidity of the air increases, the moisture content of the carton increases, and the physical properties of the carton decline. At this time, consider using moisture-proof corrugated cartons; For products that must be stored under dry conditions, they are more sensitive to the relative humidity of the air and need to be sealed with packaging materials with stronger moisture resistance; For the storage of goods in dry climate areas, we should also pay attention to the protection of goods that are prone to decline in quality due to water loss; For warehouses close to the coast, it is inevitable that the goods in the warehouse will be rusted due to humidity and salt. Therefore, rust prevention measures should be taken for goods kept in such areas. Before packaging design, we should fully understand the storage environmental conditions of products, and if necessary, we must also follow-up observation and field testing, analyze its adverse effects on the quality of packaged products and storage operations, study solutions, and correctly design its packaging materials and packaging structure

3. 2 adaptability to storage equipment and storage management

in order to adapt to various mechanized handling tools and storage facilities in modern logistics warehousing, the overall dimensions of packages should match them. Therefore, all kinds of packaging containers should be designed and manufactured based on the principle of packaging modularization, so as to adapt to the size of logistics module. In the storage link, especially the matching of package size with warehouse, pallet and other sizes should be considered to make them become a combined device system and make the most efficient use of various storage facilities

moreover, the product packaging should meet the requirements of automated warehousing management, strictly abide by the use standards of product bar codes, and reasonably design the location of bar codes during packaging design, so that it is convenient to read codes in the circulation links such as warehousing and sales

3. 3 requirements for stacking strength

1) from the perspective of improving the utilization rate of warehouse area, the product packaging design should try to improve the compressive strength of packages, reduce the amount of packaging materials and reduce the volume of packages

2) from the perspective of improving the stacking strength of packaging containers, when designing carton packaging, we should fully consider the decline of carton strength caused by various storage, transportation, manufacturing, design factors, and reasonably determine and calculate the stacking safety factor to ensure the storage and stacking safety

4 requirements for packaging in the loading, unloading and handling link

in the loading, unloading and handling operation, the relationship between packaging and loading, unloading and handling can be calibrated according to the operation manual, which can reduce costs, save expenses, and improve the efficiency of loading, unloading and handling

4. 1. The specific packaging method is determined by the different loading and unloading methods of the packaging structure and size specifications. Generally speaking, manual handling has certain requirements for the weight of goods. Scientific selection of one-time handling quality and scientific determination of package weight can promote the rationalization of manual handling. The design should be based on the principles of ergonomics to make a reasonable design to meet the strength range of human capacity. Specifically, the goods should be about 70cm long, no more than 80cm long, 40cm wide, no more than 50cm wide, and the height should be about the same as the width. The surface of the package should have eye-catching handling marks, reasonable hand holes, necessary binding belts, packaging weight and external dimensions in line with human factors. These measures can effectively reduce the occurrence of rough handling. Large containers are easy to be loaded and unloaded mechanically, but their weight and volume should also be specified. The solution in design is to standardize the package specifications

4. 2. Design requirements for packaging strength during loading and unloading

in all links of logistics, loading and unloading is the link with the highest damage rate of goods. Regardless of manual or mechanical loading and unloading, the package may fall freely due to human or accidental factors. When falling and colliding, the impact force is large and the convergence effect is small. In addition to the drop height, it also depends on the weight of the package, the cushioning performance of the inner liner and the rigidity of the ground. Therefore, it should be based on the value, strength, weight and the possibility of loading and unloading

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